Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2312-2994" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> en-US <p>Copyright on any research article in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences are Open Access articles published under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> avid@mas.ac.mn (Avid. Budeebazar, Sc.D) gantulga@mongolianlibraries.org.mn (Gantulga Lkhagva) Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:55 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATTICE BOLTZMANN MODELING FOR LIQUID-SOLID PHASE TRANSITIONS IN FREE SURFACE FLOWS https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1030 <p>Motivated by the current lack of knowledge regarding phase transition in a free surface water flow, a novel and efficient numerical model for liquid-solid phase transition in a free surface flow has been developed for the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The proposed model consists of two physically sound modules for solving free surface flow and heat transport. The heat transport module features an immersed boundary method and a non-iterative enthalpy-based approach. Sub-cycling time integration, improving the numerical stability of the heat transport module, is introduced for the integration of modules. The performance and accuracy of the model are verified through a preliminary experiment involving a melting ice cube. The obtained results indicate that the phase transition of fluid in any flow regime can be easily handled by the model with reasonable accuracy.</p> Ayurzana B, Tokuzo Hosoyamada, Tungalagtamir E, Batzorig G ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1030 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:32:59 +0000 CHARACTERISING SEASONAL VARIATIONS AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF AMBIENT PM2.5 CONCENTRATION BASED ON SHORT-TERM MONITORING IN DARKHAN CITY https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1031 <p>The purpose of this study was to survey the seasonal variation of fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) concentration and determine spatial distribution in Darkhan city. Air pollution research and reports have been few and far between in most of parts in Mongolia, especially in Darkhan with respect to quantitative aerosol particle concentration. In this study, we utilized “PM<sub>2.5</sub>sensor” to measure spatial and seasonal variation of particulate matter concentrations in the study area. The monitoring points were chosen by basing on their specific features and set up directly at ambience outdoor. In each season, we carried out measurement at 3 points, which covered the ger district and apartment district areas for one day. Whereas, at one point the ger district was sampled for 4 days in summer. Fine particulate matter concentrations were the highest in the ger district area because there are many households that use coal for their daily heating and cooking, and at the bared surface. As for seasonal variation, in winter pollution reached 400 times higher than other seasons. Furthermore, at the ger district area, PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration was as much as 20 times greater than other points and it was observed that this too had its impact on the apartment district as well. As regards the air quality index, the level of particulate matter in the ger district area is extremely unhealthy to hazardous in winter. While, good and moderate indexes were mostly identified at monitoring points during the springtime.</p> Chultem B, Sonomdagva Ch, Byambatseren Ch, Yutaka Matsumi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1031 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:07 +0000 THE RESULT OF INVESTIGATION OF COAL FROM CHANDGANA TAL DEPOSIT https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1032 <p>Proximate and ultimate analyses showed that Chandgana Tal coal has the following properties; W<sup>a</sup>-13.29%, A<sup>d</sup>-12.43%, V<sup>daf</sup>-44.98%, Q<sup>daf</sup>-5914 kcal/kg, C-67.56%, H-5.79%, S-1.67%, N-1.18% and O-23.8%. Pyrolysis of coal was performed at 200-700<sup>о</sup>С using small quartz reactor. With increasing temperature of pyrolysis, the yield of hard residue decreased, while the yield of tar and pyrolytic water increased. The yield of coal tar was maximum at 700<sup>о</sup>С, and reached 4.8%. At this stage, coal was pyrolized in a bigger scale retort of laboratory. The tar was separated from water and analysed by FT-IR and organic composition. <br />Thermolysis experiments were also performed in order to explore the possibility of obtaining liquid products under mild condition. The results show that 23.5% of liquid product can be obtained at 450<sup>о</sup>C with coal to tetralin ratio (1:1.8).</p> Tsatsral G, Narangerel J, Purevsuren B ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1032 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:15 +0000 DETERMINATION OF SOME ORGANIC ACIDS IN “BARAGSHUN EN” PREPARATION https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1033 <p>The current study aims to measure the amount of some organic acids in Baragshun EN preparation made from natural mineral baragshun; and to determine their chemical structures by using modern advanced technologies. As a result of HPLC analysis, the amount of benzoic acid in Baragshun EN preparation was measured at 12.84%, as well as, linoleic acid, cathinone and malonic acid were identified in the supplement through GC/MS analysis. <br />It has been identified that these organic acids in Baragshun EN preparation help restore the central nervous system, stimulate the immune system, prevent various diseases, protect the body, regenerate, and detoxify, and are antibacterial. The study reveals that the traditions used in folk medicine are similar to the results of our analysis.</p> Batbayar Z, Dolgorsuren Ts, Lkhagvasuren N, Bolorchuluun S, Enkh-Oyun T ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1033 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:21 +0000 ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BIFIDOBACTERIA ISOLATED FROM INFANT FAECES https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1034 <p>Antibacterial activity of bifidobacteria isolated from Mongolian infant faeces was elucidated on pathogenic intestinal bacteria for the development of a new antibacterial bifidobacteria, the permission for which was granted by the Mongolian Medical Ethics Committee Approval (MMECA). A total of forty-nine single colonies were obtained from 3 samples by using a BL medium enrichment. Among them, 29 isolates had Gram−positive, catalase−negative properties, and maul−like or Y−shaped morphology, and then, 20 Bifidobacterium breve and 9 Bifidobacterium longum strains were detected by the B. breve and B. longum specific primers. Organic acids produced by the isolated bifidobacteria in their cell-free supernatants were quantitatively analyzed by a spectrophotometric absorbance at 340 nm, suggesting that D−lactic, L−lactic, and acetic acids were produced, and the pH of the supernatants was at 3.86−4.55. The isolated bifidobacteria showed antibacterial activity toward Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium as high as that of a standard bifidobacteria, however, lower activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was probably due to the production of organic acids.</p> Bayar E, Demberel Sh, Satomi Ishii, Kensuke Miyazaki, Takashi Yoshida ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1034 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:27 +0000 PHYLOGENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME SMALL MAMMALS FROM SCIURUDAE FAMILY IN MONGOLIA https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1035 <p>The squirrel family, Sciuridae, is one of the largest and widespread, ecologically common families of mammals. Due to the conspicuousness of this small mammal group with a big population, insufficient knowledge exists about its phylogenetic relationships. In this study, we identified 14 DNA sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene in 6 species of Sciuridae and these sequences were compared with corresponding published COI gene sequences of the same species in Eurasia and determined their phylogenetic relationships by Neighbor-joining method.</p> Bolortuya U, Bayarmaa G, Mandakhtsetsen Kh, Oyuntsetseg D, Bayarlkhagva D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1035 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:35 +0000 MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSIS OF ANCIENT DOMESTIC GOAT IN THE MONGOLIA https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1036 Food and agricultural production sector, especially livestock production is vital for Mongolia’s economic and social development. The five breeds of livestock – cattle, horses, sheep, goats and camels, have always been directly related to the history, culture and economy of Mongolia. It is undeniable that these five breeds of livestock are considered as an important asset of the Mongolian economy as well as guarantee of national security. Out of the five breeds, small livestock including sheep and goats account for more than 80% of the total livestock population (according to the National Statistical Office data). It is not hard to retrieve research and recorded materials about the morphology or the economic productivity of these breeds and their sub-breeds. However, the development of society now demands higher yield from the livestock animals. Genetically, the a1, a2, a3 and a4 samples appertaining to some 3,000 years ago are substantially different from the haplogroups. However, judging by the phylogenetic tree the 800 year-old samples, as compared to the phylogroups of the 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC, are closer to the modern samples. Alongside this, from molecular distance we find that the M1 haplogroup is a sample belonging to the 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC, which had separated the earliest, while the aforementioned 800 year-old sample separates at a later period, which chronologically is convincing. But the a6 ancient sample conforms to the B haplogroup and the a8 or the sample of 800 years ago is in the same haplogroup as the sample of the 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC. However, the a6 sample obtained from the 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC tombs obtained sample was the origin of modern goats that can be included in haplogroup B. Temuujin J, Khaliunaa T, Batsaikhan Z, Ochirkhuyag B, Khulan J, Janchiv Ts ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1036 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:41 +0000 PLANT REGENERATION FROM CALLUS CULTURES DERIVED FROM MATURE ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS OF SOPHORA ALOPECUROIDES LINN. IN MONGOLIA https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1037 <p>The aim of this study is to determine the effect of hormones and selection of the most effective medium using callus cultures derived from mature zygotic embryos of Sophora alopecuroides Linn. for plant regeneration. After 8 weeks of culture, the highest callus induction medium (93.3%) was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mglL Zeatin and 2.0 mg/L α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The best callus proliferation was observed on the same medium. <br>Shoots regenerated at the highest frequency of 50.0% with 5.8 shoots when calli were cultured on MS medium with 2.0 mg/L BA. Therefore, this protocol provides a basis for future studies on genetic improvement and could be applied to large-scale multiplication systems for commercial nurseries of <em>S.alopecuroides L</em>.</p> Tsolmon M, Ganbat B, Oyunbileg Yu ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1037 Thu, 18 Oct 2018 02:33:50 +0000