Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on <a title="DOAJ" href="https://doaj.org/toc/2312-2994" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a></p> Mongolian Academy of Sciences en-US Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences 2310-4716 <p>Copyright on any research article in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences is retained by the author(s).</p><p>The authors grant the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p><p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license"><img src="https://i.creativecommons.org/l/by/4.0/88x31.png" alt="Creative Commons Licence" /></a><br />Articles in the Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences are Open Access articles published under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p><p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> Geochemistry and geochronology of the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Shar Khutul area, Central Mongolia https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1045 <p>The study area is located in the central part of Tsetserleg terrane in the southwestern margin of the Khangai-Khentey orogenic system. The paper presents new data on geochemistry and geochronology of sedimentary rocks from the Shar Khutul area, where the Tsetserleg terrane consists of Silurian-Devonian oceanic plate stratigraphic unit and Carboniferous shallow water sediment. The Upper Silurian to Middle Devonian Erdenetsogt Formation (S<sub>3</sub>-D<sub>2</sub>er), which is an oceanic plate stratigraphic unit, is mainly composed of siliceous siltstone, volcanites, tuffs, quartzite, and cherts. The shallow water sediments are divided into Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous Tsetserleg Formation (D<sub>3</sub>-C<sub>1</sub>cc) and Lower–Middle Carboniferous Dzargalant Formation (C<sub>1-2</sub>dz). The Tsetserleg Formation (D<sub>3</sub>-C<sub>1</sub>cc) consists of only sedimentary rocks such as bluish-grey sandstones and siltstones, and Lower–Middle Carboniferous Dzargalant Formation (C<sub>1-2</sub>dz) is principally composed of medium- to coarse-grained, brown-greenish grey sandstones with thin-layers of dark siltstones and gravelites. </p> <p>The SiO<sub>2</sub> content of the Shar Khutul area sandstones ranges from 63.85 to 67.95 wt.% and the average content of TiO<sub>2</sub> is 0.72 wt.% and Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> content is 14.38 wt.%. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) value ranges from 48.71 to 56.94 and the range of Index of compositional variations (ICV) is from 0.98 to 1.24. Moreover, the samples studied show that most of the sandstones are generally immature and were derived from weakly weathered source rocks.</p> <p>The ratios of Eu/Eu* (0.83), La/Sc (3.81), La/Co (5.30), and Cr/Th (13.81) indicate that the derivation of the Shar Khutul area sandstones from felsic rock sources and confirm the signatures of a felsic igneous provenance and suggest an active continental margin tectonic setting of the source area.</p> <p>The clastic zircons from the medium grained sandstone (Erdenetsogt formation) yield ages between 2.5 Ga and 236 Ma and the detrital zircons exhibit four peak ages at 1.7-2.5 Ga (n = 13), 455-499 Ma (n = 6), 337-382 Ma (n = 13) and 236–250 Ma (n = 5).</p> Erdenechimeg D Oyunchimeg T Otgonbaatar D Jitka Míková Tomurchudur Ch Dagva-Ochir L Enkhdalai B Delgerzaya P Sharav D Pavel Hanz L ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 4 21 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1045 Dependence of the cut-off parameters for the cluster reconstruction on incident momenta https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1046 <p>In this work, firstly, we have determined the multiplicities of protons that are involved from projectiles to interactions, and secondly, the mean incident momentum using experimental data on the collisions of proton, helium, oxygen, silicon, and sulfur with the nuclear emulsion at 4.5A GeV/c. We have studied the dependences of clot numbers, number of particles in the clot, rapidity, and the mean azimuthal value on the variable d<sub>ij</sub>, and the dependence of the cluster number on the mean value of the variable d<sub>ij</sub>. Using the “Cone” algorithm for the clustering, we have precisely identified that the cut-off parameter to compose the clusters consisted of s and f tracks produced in (p, He, C, O, Si, S) + Em collisions decreases by the power law with mean values of incident momentum.</p> Shinebayar Janchiv Togoo Ravdandorj Tursukh Amgalan Otgonsuren Dalkhajav Munkhjargal Lkhagvadorj ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 22 30 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1046 Selection of culture media for the production of carotenoids with antioxidant activity by Rhodotorula glutinis https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1047 <p>Rhodotorula glutinis is an aerobic yeast with particular metabolic characteristic that can produce large amount of carotenoids during the stationary growth phase. Carotenoid is an important natural pigment with antioxidant properties, which is used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry as additives. The aim of this work is to study the production of carotenoid with antioxidant activity by R.glutinis R12 in different media conditions. The selected strain was cultivated in three different culture media such as YM broth, Basal and MS3 medium at 28°C for 72–120 hours. After fermentation, cells were harvested by centrifugation and freeze-dried. Carotenoid from the biomass was extracted as a mixture of DMSO, acetone and petroleum ether with a ratio of 1:2:2 and cells were ruptured using ultrasonic wave. The carotenoid content in the supernatant was measured by spectrophotometric method. The highest content of carotenoids extracted from R.glutinis R12 was 283.71µg/g dry biomass. The maximum antioxidant activity of carotenoid by DPPH assays were achieved 52.09 ± 0.4% (IC<sub>50</sub>= 536.02) and at a concentration of 600 µg ml-1. This study revealed that the R.glutinis R12 strain has the ability to produce carotenoid and has shown antioxidant activity in Basal and MS3 medium. For further study, it is necessary to investigate the improvement of carotenoid yield from R.glutinis R12 strains.</p> Gerelmaa Z Zultsetseg Ch Batjargal B Rentsenkhand Ts ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 31 38 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1047 Property of upgraded solid and liquid products from Baganuur lignite by thermal reaction with solvent https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1048 <p>The coal of Baganuur deposit have been investigated to determine its technical characteristics, elemental and petrographical maceral compositions. On the basis of proximate, ultimate, petrographic and FTIR analysis, the obtained results have confirmed that the Baganuur coal is a low rank lignite B2 mark. The liquid tar, produced through thermolysis of Baganuur coal, was investigated by FTIR, <sup>13</sup>C and <sup>1</sup>H NMR spectrometric analysis. The results of thermolysis of Baganuur coal in tetralin has a constant mass ratio between coal and tetralin (1:1.8) at 450°C, which shows that 40.0% of liquid product can be obtained after thermal decomposition of the coal organic mass.</p> Ariunaa A Otgonchuluun D Purevsuren B Davaajav Ya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 39 47 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1048 The growth trend of planted trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) in the early stage of plantation establishment https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1049 <p>This study examined the growth of planted Scots Pine trees of different ages growing in the Tujyin Nars National park, located in Selenge aimag in the north of Mongolia. A total of seven, 50 x 20 m (0.1 ha) sized sample plots were established using a completely randomized sampling design. The tree growth monitoring was carried out between 2003 and 2017, by an annual repeated measurement at the end of each growing season. The total height, annual height increment and diameter at breast height were measured at sample plots and tree samples were taken for laboratory analysis. For statistical analysis, a One-way analysis of variance (One-way ANOVA) and F-test were applied. Our findings showed that the annual height (F=15.21, P&lt;0.0001) and radial increments (F=15.76, P&lt;0.0001) varied among plantations commensurate to their age. In our study, the highest height (46.5±6.1 cm) and radial (4.1±0.8 mm) increment were occurred in 12 and 10 years old plantations. Therefore, a strong positive correlation (r=0.99) between tree increment and plantation age was observed in plantations below 12 years of age. After this age, increment values were relatively stable, which tended to gradually decrease with plantation age. Our findings confirm that initial planting design leads to overcrowding with plantation age; therefore, implementation of a thinning practice is necessary after a plantation reaches 12 years of age. The ever-decreasing trend of both radial and height increments in plantations beyond 12-years of age supports the importance of thinning as a practice to reduce competition and to support the growth of remaining trees in older plantations.</p> Batsaikhan G Tsogtbaatar J Gerelbaatar S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 48 56 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1049 Assessments of the Growth Rate of Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) and its distribution in Mongolian Altai Mountain Range https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1050 <p>The Mongolian Altai mountain range stretches from east to west for more than 800 kilometers, and its forest cover is considered the southwestern boundary of the distribution of Mongolian forests and is characterized by a unique combination of high-mountain and desert ecosystems. Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) is one of the main forest-forming tree species in the Mongolian Altai and covers 112.0 thousand ha of area and is distributed at an altitude of 2300 to 2700 m a.s.l. In this study, we attempted a comparative study of tree growth rates in larch forests, which are associated with four different altitudinal zones in the Mongolian Altai, aimed at determinining the lower and upper limits of forest distribution in this region. We used the natural quantitative indicators in this study.</p> <p>We carried out the diameter growth rate analyses on 15 model tree samples taken from the Mongolian Altai and 4 samples from Central Khangai regions. All the trees were divided into fast-growing and slow-growing. The results of the assessments showed that 60 percent of the studied forests belonged to slow-growing forests. Slowest growth rate was observed in the forests of Khan Taishir and Khar Azarga mountains, which are the southernmost tip of conifer forest distribution in Mongolia.</p> <p>For the first time in Mongolia we observed that the upper limit of larch forests reached up to 2700 m a.s.l. Such slow rate of tree growth in larch forests is the result of the existing harsh continental climate, aridity, and high altitudinal distribution in the Mongolian Altai. Our findings can become the scientific basis for the development of a sustainable forest management plan in the forests of the Mongol Altai, taking into account the different growth rate between stands.</p> Battulga P Tsogtbaatar J Gerelbaatar S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 57 67 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1050 Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene sequence of Mongolian wild boars https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1051 <p>Specimens of Mongolian wild boar (<em>Sus scrofa</em>) from Arkhangai, Dornod, Zavkhan, Orkhon, Ovorkhangai, Selenge, Tuv, Khovd, Khuvsgul and Uvs aimags (provinces) were subjected to DNA sequencing. Determined sequences from 18 specimens were registered into the GenBank and accession numbers were obtained. In this study mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequences of Mongolian wild boars were analyzed with 36 complete sequences of 12S rRNA gene of wild boar (<em>Sus scrofa</em>) available at NCBI GenBank. Sequence alignment, detection of parsimonious informative sites, model selection, calculation of nucleotide distances and tree construction with 1000 bootstrapped replications were conducted using MEGA 6. Maximum likelihood trees were constructed by the HKY model. A maximum likelihood tree with 53 complete sequences of mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene of <em>Sus scrofa</em> was constructed. Mongolian sequences from the same and adjacent locations were clustered together.</p> <p>European sequences were clustered together, additionally two sequences from south western China and two sequences from south eastern China were also clustered. Additionally, 12S rRNA gene sequences of Mongolian<em> Sus scrofa</em>, located between Asian and European sequences suggesting geographical location of Mongolia, played an important role in the gene flow between Asian and European wild boar population.</p> Ali Khamit Bayarmaa Gun-Aajav Oyuntsetseg Dashzeveg Shinebayar Batsuuri Enkhmaa Shiikhar Bayarlkhagva D ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 68 76 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1051 Results of assessment of the competitiveness ranking of Mongolia’s tourism destination https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1052 <p>The research study aimed to develop the tourism destination competitiveness model in the Mongolian case. Based on comparative analysis of the previously developed and applied models in other countries and regions, the author developed a basic model to evaluate the competitiveness of Mongolia’s tourist destinations. Mongolia’s 11 main tourism destinations were evaluated by the destination competitiveness model with 6 groups, and 11 categories. The Grey relational analysis was used to estimate the competitiveness ranking of Mongolia’s tourism destinations. The result of the research study showed that the Gobi, areas related to Chinggis Khan and Kharkhorin (or Karakorum) were the best destinations, in terms of competitiveness, and the Altai Tavan Bogd was listed as the least competitive destination in Mongolia.</p> Khishigdalai Ulaankhuu Bat-Erdene Nyandag ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 77 86 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1052 The efficiency forecast of trilateral transit transportation of economic corridor https://www.mongoliajol.info/index.php/PMAS/article/view/1054 <p>The development basis of a country is human capital which follows the transportation and infrastructure issues. In particular, landlocked countries with fewer neighbours ought to create transit transportations with its bordering countries that could help to reduce transportation costs, develop economies, transportation and tourism with neighbours, as well as promote regional economic relations and cooperation. An efficient transit transport is vital for landlocked states. Due to the lack of access to seaports, transit transportation is a unique way to connect with the neighbouring countries. Mongolia’s geographical location, the rapid development of the mining and energy sectors are critically important for connecting with the “New Silk Road”, the “Development Road National Programme” (former Steppe Road) and the “Eurasian Transportation Corridor”. This paper is an attempt to forecast the efficiency of transit transport between Mongolia, China and Russia. The article focuses on the prerequisites for the development of the methodology for measuring the transit transport performance. Mongolia-China-Russia economic corridor marks a watershed in intensifying trilateral cooperation between Mongolia, China and Russia, which would not only create favorable conditions for furthering trilateral cooperation, but also promoting regional economic cooperation. Therefore, the paper has used Mongolian Railway statistical data of 2017 to provide efficiency analysis of the central railway system. A total of four types of railway transportation is carried out in Mongolia and transit transportation is relatively efficient. The efficiency calculation and performance of transport system of Mongolia were measured using the Data Envelopment Analysis.</p> Zolboo Gansukh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 87 95 10.5564/pmas.v58i4.1054