Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on<strong> <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ,</a>&nbsp;<a title="Google Scholar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="Dimensions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions,</a>&nbsp;</strong>and <a title="CNKI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>CNKI</strong></a></p> Mongolian Academy of Sciences en-US Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences 2310-4716 <p>Copyright on any research article in the&nbsp;<strong>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences</strong>&nbsp;is retained by the author(s).</p> <p>The authors grant the&nbsp;<strong>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences</strong>&nbsp;a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the <strong>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences</strong>&nbsp;are Open Access articles published&nbsp;under a&nbsp;<a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>&nbsp;CC BY.</p> <p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> The Effects of Selenium Nanoparticles (SeNPs) on Ruminant <p>This study examines the role of selenium and the effects of selenium nanoparticle-enriched food supplementation especially in ruminant animals. Selenium is an essential element that has multiple biological activities. Particularly it is important for many physiological processes, especially for the functions of reproductive and immune systems, metabolism of thyroid hormones, as well as antioxidant defense. Also, the presence of selenium nanoparticles in the diet provide a high content of selenium in milk and meat due to its high bioavailability and low toxicity, which is essential for humans.</p> Khandsuren Badgar József Prokisch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 1 8 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1500 Finding a suitable fit function used to determine the Physical width of the Flux tube with Dynamical fermions <p>We have determined the width of the flux tube for several temperatures and distances using four different fit functions in order to determine the appropriate function that fits the data of the middle transverse distribution of flux tube with the dynamical fermions. Our results have revealed that only one fitting function cannot determine the width of the flux tube at the given temperatures and distances. We conclude that appropriate fit functions are a four coefficient function where R &lt; 0.8 fm and where Gaussian function is R &gt; 0.8 fm.</p> Battogtokh Purev Sodbileg Chagdaa Enkhtuya Galsandorj ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-29 2020-11-29 9 17 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1501 Content and distribution of some chemical elements in the poplar leaves (Populus laurifolia) in Ulaanbaatar <p>In the last more than two decades, technogenic environmental pollution of Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) has become a critical issue due to the rapid growth of the city’s population and environmental objects such as soil, plant and water in Ulaanbaatar territory have been heavily contaminated through air. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxic and biophilic elements in the leaves of laurel poplar (Populus laurifolia) in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia) and to study the behaviour and interdependence of its distribution, (2) and to assess the ecological state of laurel poplar (Populus laurifolia). In the leaves of laurel poplar (Populus laurifolia) on the territory of Ulaanbaatar, the distribution of most of the studied toxic and biophilic elements is even, but only Mg, Ca, and Mn are not evenly distributed. The biogeochemical feature of laurel poplar (Populus laurifolia) on the territory of Ulaanbaatar was studied by comparing it with the value of the world clarke and with the average content of elements in plant ash according to Alekseenko and with the background value. Our study revealed the accumulation of Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb and the scattering of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu in the leaves of laurel poplar (Populus laurifolia) in Ulaanbaatar In Populus laurifolia leaves in Ulaanbaatar area the median value of Fe/Mn ratio is 4.2-2.7 times, and the median value of Pb/Mn ratio is 6.7 times higher the normal and Cu/Zn ratio is at an equilibrium. The highest Fe/Mn ratios are found along the main highway (10.45) and in the city centre (11.09).</p> Byambasuren Tsagaan Ochirbat Ganbaatar Tsedenbaljir Darizav Khuukhenkhuu Byambaa ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-24 2020-12-24 18 27 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1502 Assessment of Natural Resource Potential of the Landscape of Mongolia (Based on Agricultural Production Resource) <p>The landscape contains a variety of different potentials that can perform socio-economic and ecological functions, since landscapes are surface patterns that differ in appearance, environmental components, and their spatial distribution and location. The natural resource potential of the landscape refers to the ability of a landscape to provide society with the raw materials and natural resources, which are required for manufacturing products in the society. The natural resource potential of the landscape can be estimated based on mineral resources, forest resources, agricultural production resources, hunting, and tourism or recreation resources. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the natural resource potential of the landscape based on agricultural production resources. This research was carried out with combined methodology, which involved market price method that was used for assessing agricultural production resources with a GIS-based analytical hierarchy process that was used for developing the potential assessment. The analysis of the spatial distribution map of the natural resource potential of the landscape showed that 41.0 per cent of the area studied had “average” potential, while 34.8 per cent had “low” potential and 19.4 per cent had “high” potential. However, only 2.3 per cent of the area had “very high” potential in terms of potential assessment, whereas, almost the same amount of area (2.5%) was assessed as with “very low” potential. Evaluating the natural resource potential of the landscape, based on agricultural production resources, is important as fundamental information for further research, such as developing a concept of regional economic development and evaluating ecosystem services.</p> Purevsuren Munkhtur Avirmed Erdenedalai ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-16 2020-12-16 28 42 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1503 Geographical analysis of forest types based on a digital elevation model generated from synthetic aperture radar <p>This research aims to examine forest type distribution, based on slope and aspect maps, generated from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. The study is conducted over an area about 1564.9 km2 located in Khutag-Undur soum of Bulgan aimag (province), northern Mongolia. Sentinel-1 interferometric SAR images acquired on 5 and 17 October of 2020 are used to generate a digital elevation model (DEM). For a forest type classification, geocoded Sentinel-2 multispectral images acquired on 5 July and 27 September of 2019 are used. Initially, a DEM creation from the SAR data is performed and the slope and aspect maps are generated, following which geographical analysis is performed using slope, aspect and classified forest type maps. The result of the analysis shows that about half of the forested areas face the north-west, north and north-east directions. It also revealed that evergreen conifers are distributed on slopes of moderate degrees facing towards the south-east and south, whereas the deciduous conifers are mainly distributed on relatively steep slopes facing south-west, west and north-west.</p> Nyamjargal Erdenebaatar Amarsaikhan Damdinsuren ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-29 2020-12-29 43 54 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1504 Assessment of organizational management capability and employee’ satisfaction at select maternity hospitals in Ulaanbaatar <p>Healthcare organizations are implementing quality management system by forming legal entity, by carrying out administrative structural changes and developing healthcare organization’s structure, set-up, functional standards, clinical guideline, rules and employee´ moral principles.&nbsp; Introduction of accreditation system into healthcare organizations is becoming an accepted standard, however, healthcare paradigm shift outcome is insufficient.&nbsp; In this connection, researchers, citizens and policy makers are speaking out that the quality of and access to healthcare service is getting worse than before. Management capability index presents management assessment by score, assesses outcome of organizational functions and makes it possible to measure management capability.&nbsp; This study was performed at the Amgalan maternity hospital, Urguu maternity hospital and Khuree maternity hospital between July 2019 and September 2019&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp;&nbsp; cross-sectional study method was used. The study involved 480 employees of above-mentioned hospitals.&nbsp; We used 9 chapter and 90 criteria that were used in more than 30 Mongolian Public (i.e., Governmental) Organizations for capability assessment to determine management capability index of the maternity hospitals. Organization management capabilities, as an organizational goal and task, leadership skill in an organization, appropriate structure and set-up, organization’s incentive and motivation leverage schemes, organization’s relationship and collaboration, organizational behavior and culture, resource utilization, knowledge and innovation, organizational productivity, quality and performance were included in the questionnaire.&nbsp; Organizations capability index was calculated with a score point of 1 to 5 for each question.&nbsp; A total 480 employees, including 220 from the Urguu maternity Hospital, 125 from the Khuree maternity hospital and 135 from the Amgalan maternity hospital were included in this study. When responses to the question of management capability were according to duties and functions, not much difference was observed among the three hospitals, but when the responses were compared with that provided by doctors, nurses, obstetricians and other medical staff, a 1.8 percentage higher point was given by the administrative and service staff.&nbsp;Regression analysis showed strong relation between management capability assessment of doctors, nurses, obstetricians and other employee of the select hospitals (p&lt;0.001 and R=0.89). Organizational management capabilities of Urguu and Khuree Maternity Hospitals, which&nbsp; have not yet introduced quality management system, are different from the Amgalan maternity hospital’s organizational management capability (p=.000). Doctors, obstetricians, nurses and other employee’ assessed organizational management capability by 73.5 percent respectively. There is a positive correlation ship between organizational capability and employee satisfaction. Better and higher management capability of an organization results in higher employee satisfaction.</p> Batbold Tseleejav Tumurbaatar Luvsansambuu Munkh-Erdene Luvsan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-12-03 2020-12-03 55 64 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1506 Ties between steppe and peninsula: Comparative perspective of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Мongolia and Кorea <p>This article describes the results of a comparative study of some monuments (settlement, dolmen, rock art) and some artifacts (pottery, arrowhead, dagger, bronze mirror, bead, whetstone) of the Bronze and Early Iron Ages of Mongolian steppe and Korean Peninsula. The comparative study sought to clarify the external and internal structures of the monuments, as well as the burial practices. In the case of artifacts, their materials and functions were considered.</p> Jamiyan-Ombo Gantulga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-11-21 2020-11-21 65 88 10.5564/pmas.v60i4.1507