Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences 2021-05-16T13:55:42+00:00 D.Enkhamgalan, MD Open Journal Systems <p>Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is published by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences.</p> <p>The Proceedings of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences (PMAS) is included on<strong> <a title="DOAJ" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ,</a>&nbsp;<a title="Google Scholar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>,&nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="Dimensions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions,</a>&nbsp;</strong>and <a title="CNKI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>CNKI</strong></a></p> Assessment of genetic diversity in sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) accessions from Mongolia based on RAPD markers 2021-05-16T13:55:37+00:00 Zolzaya Sandag Dorjderem Balchin Ariya Enkhtuya Nomin Myagmar Nomuun Oyunbat Khurelsukh Buyanbat Sosorburam Batnasan Ninj Badam Jamiyansuren Sandagdorj Oyunsuren Tsendsuren Gantulga Davaakhuu <p><em>Hippophae rhamnoides</em> L., which belongs to the Elaegnaceae family, is one of the medically and environmentally valuable berry crops with its high nutritious and bioactive compounds. Despite its high demand in the food, medicinal and agricultural industries, this species has been less studied molecularly. In view of this, an effort has been made in the present study to characterize 24 accessions of H. rhamnoides collected from different geographical regions of Mongoliaa through random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 10 RAPD primers were used in the present study for their ability to produce clear, scorable amplicons. The RAPD analysis totally generated 87 bands, of which 84 (96.34%) were polymorphic, pointing to a high degree of genetic variation. The similarity coefficient ranged from 0.4-1 with the mean of 0.78. The UPGMA dendrogram was generated using these data grouped accessions into two main clusters. Cluster analysis reflected a relatively close relationship between accessions grown at the same or neighbouring areas. Thus, our data could be informative for further selection and management of germplasm collections and crossing strategies for sea buckthorn.</p> 2021-03-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Zolzaya Sandag, Dorjderem Balchin, Ariya Enkhtuya, Nomin Myagmar, Nomuun Oyunbat, Khurelsukh Buyanbat, Sosorburam Batnasan, Ninj Badam, Jamiyansuren Sandagdorj, Oyunsuren Tsendsuren, Gantulga Davaakhuu Forest fire risk assessment model using Remote sensing and GIS techniques in Tujiin nars national park, Mongolia 2021-05-16T13:55:38+00:00 Munkh-Erdene Altangerel Amarsaikhan Damdinsuren Jargaldalai Enkhtuya Nyamjargal Erdenebaatar <p>Forest is an important natural resource that should be carefully protected and rationally managed. In recent years, deforestation and forest land degradation have become the main concern for forest specialists as well as policy and decision-makers dealing with environment issues. It has been found that much of the existing forests have been destroyed, mainly by shifting cultivation, timber preparation, legal and illegal logging, and forest fires. To protect and conserve the deteriorating forest, it is very important to conduct forest-related risk assessment and map the outcomes in a spatial domain. The aim of this research is to conduct a forest fire risk assessment mapping of Tujiin Nars National Park using geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) techniques. The research approach is based on an empirical model. It includes three parameters (i.e. geomorphology, vegetation cover combustibility and human activity) that are crucial for the forest fire assessment. The results of the study can be used for different decision making processes.</p> 2021-03-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Munkh-Erdene Altangerel, Amarsaikhan Damdinsuren, Jargaldalai Enkhtuya, Nyamjargal Erdenebaatar Estimating spatial distribution of aridity and moisture indices of Mongolia using remotely sensed time series data 2021-05-16T13:55:39+00:00 Munkhdulam Otgonbayar Erdenesukh Sumiya Renchinmyadag Tovuudorj <p>The aim of this study is to estimate the spatial distribution of aridity and moisture indices using remotely sensed time-series data. For the analysis, we have chosen two simple climatic indices. One of two indices was the De Martonne aridity index, and the other one was the Mezentsev moisture index. The study area covers the total territory of Mongolia (~1.566 × 10<sup>6</sup> km<sup>2</sup>). Both indices could be estimated from meteorological station-based air temperature and precipitation. However, meteorological station-based recorded precipitation and temperature data with long coverage are only available from a limited number of stations with insufficient spatial coverage. In other words, these datasets suffer from uneven geographic coverage, with many areas of the Earth poorly represented. In this study, therefore, we have used satellite-derived temperature and precipitation data. Monthly mean air temperature has been estimated from MODIS LSTd, LSTn, and elevation using RF regression. Precipitation data has been extracted from Climate Hazards Group Infra-Red Precipitation with Station (CHIRPS) datasets. CHIRPS is gauge-satellite combined precipitation data. Based on De Martonne and Mezensev formulas, and satellite-derived meteorological data, spatial distribution maps of aridity and moisture indices in Mongolia were generated. The study result showed that aridity was observed in all areas of southern Mongolia, and some areas in the west, and grassland areas in the east, which is largely included in the dry steppe, desert-steppe, and gobi desert zones. Moisture was observed in the forest and forest-steppe areas in north, central, northeastern, and eastern Mongolia. A comparison of the aridity index and moisture index shows the following: of the total territory, aridity is 31.9:31.4 percent, humidity 14.7:13.4 percent respectively. Dry steppe, desert steppe, and Gobi desert zones are extremely sensitive to water resource variability and availability.</p> 2021-03-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Munkhdulam Otgonbayar, Erdenesukh Sumiya, Renchinmyadag Tovuudorj Particulate matter concentrations during winter seasons of 2016-2020 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia 2021-05-16T13:55:39+00:00 Ganzorig Byambajav Bayarmaa Batbaatar Ariundelger Ariunsaikhan Sonomdagva Chonokhuu <p>In this study, we have focused on the outdoor concentration of fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) during the coldest months (November-February) of 2016-2019 and January-February of 2020 and illustrated the daily, monthly and quarterly averages according to the single-point measurement data collected by the PM<sub>2.5</sub> sensor at an air quality monitoring station located in a central area of Ulaanbaatar. The study also analyzes monthly high, low, average and median points of PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations in the area that was selected. The PM<sub>2.5</sub> sensor collects its data at an interval of every ten seconds, registers 8500 data in one day and presents the concentration of fine particulate matter in micrograms per cubic meter (μg/m<sup>3</sup>). On the basis of data collection and analysis, from November through February of 2019-2020, average PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration dropped noticeably by 44 per cent compared to the previous years. The Government of Mongolia took immediate action to combat air pollution of Ulaanbaatar city in May 2019 by banning the burning of raw coal in the ger districts, which account for 70 per cent of the city’s emissions, and introduced coal briquette as the only type of fuel that was allowed to be burned in metal stoves as a primary source of heating and cooking. Our study reveals that the latest government regulation had a considerable impact on air quality during winter 2019-2020 and helped in the sudden decline of the most dangerous pollutant PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration very close to national standards (50 µg/m<sup>3</sup> 24-hour mean) within 6 months since the enforcement of the new regulation.</p> 2021-03-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ganzorig Byambajav, Bayarmaa Batbaatar, Ariundelger Ariunsaikhan, Sonomdagva Chonokhuu Energy cooperation between Mongolia and Russia: past, present, and future 2021-05-16T13:55:40+00:00 Sereeter Batmunkh Saneev Boris Sodov Batkhuyag Punsalmaa Ochirbat Makhbal Tumenjargal Lagerev Anatoly Sokolov Alexander Sergei Popov <p>The paper showcases the experience of energy cooperation between Mongolia and Russia and it gives a brief description of the current state and outlines strategic directions of energy cooperation between the two countries from the perspective of current energy cooperation priorities in the Northeast Asian countries, and active mutually beneficial participation of Mongolia and Russia in this process. Prerequisites for cooperation and conditions for successful intercountry projects in individual industries of the energy sector are considered in the study.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sereeter Batmunkh, Saneev Boris, Sodov Batkhuyag, Punsalmaa Ochirbat, Makhbal Tumenjargal, Lagerev Anatoly, Sokolov Alexander, Sergei Popov Issues to develop tertiary education in line with regional development 2021-05-16T13:55:41+00:00 Tsedev-Ish Otgonkhuu Myagmarsuren Altanbagana <p>For Mongolia, which has a small population, a large territory, and abundant natural, agricultural, and mineral resources, regional development of the education sector, especially tertiary education, which is significant for population settlement, is an important issue for regional development. The purpose of this study is to optimize spatial planning of the tertiary education sector in line with regional development. This research used statistical and spatial analyzing methods to achieve the sets of research objectives. The key indicators of the tertiary education sector included a number of universities, institutes, and colleges, students, full-time teachers, new entrants, and graduates from general educational schools and the relevant datasets were collected from the National Statistical Office (NSO) and the Ministry of Education and Science (MES) covering the period from 1990 to 2019. As can be seen from research results, 92.5 per cent of tertiary educational institutions, 88.9 per cent of all employees working in the sector, 92.6 per cent of all students, and 92.2 per cent of new entrants are all located in Ulaanbaatar alone, which means that Mongolia’s tertiary education sector is overcrowded in the Capital city only. This study suggests that it is necessary to support the establishment of vocational and tertiary education institutions, research centers, institutes, and their branches outside of the capital city by first reviewing the status and functions of national and aimag-level cities, which are in line with regional and local unique and economic priorities.</p> 2021-03-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Tsedev-Ish Otgonkhuu, Myagmarsuren Altanbagana