Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>Scientific journal published by the <a title="MULS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mongolian University of Life Sciences (MULS)</a> and <a href="">Mongolian Academy of Agricultural Sciences</a> (MAAS)<strong>.</strong></p> en-US <p>All rights reserved. Submission of a manuscript implies</p> <ul> <li>that the submitted work has not been published before (except as part of a thesis or lecture note or report, or in the form of an abstract);</li> <li>that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere;</li> <li>that its publication has been approved by all co-authors as well as by the authorities at the institutions where the work has been carried out;</li> <li>that, if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors hand over the transferable copyrights of the accepted manuscript to the journal, and</li> <li>that the manuscript or parts thereof will thus not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright holder.</li> </ul> <p>Copyrights include electronic and visual reproduction and distribution; electronic storage and retrieval; and all other forms of publication or any other types of publication including all subsidiary rights.</p> (Dr. Bayarmaa Bold) (Gantulga Lkhagva) Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:49:14 +0000 OJS 60 The identification and classification of endogenous retroviruses in the horse genome <p>Endogenous retroviruses (ervs) are sequences that derived from ancient retroviral infections of germ cells and integrated in humans, mammals and other vertebrates millions years ago. These ervs are inherited according to Mendelian expectations as all other genes in the genome. Coding sequences are flanked by two ltrs (long terminal repeat sequences). Most ervs are defective however some ervs still have open reading frames in their genome. These ervs settle close to functional genes or within the genes and can influence or control functions of the host genes using their ltrs. Most integration has deleterious effects. However some integration could be example of positive co-adaptation as syncitin. The first equine endogenous beta retrovirus which is ecerv-beta1 has been found in 2011 by Antoinette C.van der Kuyl<sup>1</sup>. The first known beta retrovirus and few pol gene similar to foamy retrovirus were only known endogenous retroviruses fixed in the domestic horse (equuscaballus) genome. Our aim of the study was to identify other endogenous retrovirus sequences in an equine genome and classify them into groups. Based on the high number of sines (equine repetitive element) in the horse genome we hypothesized that certain ervs will be located sufficiently close to sines that they will be amplified using an unbiased sine-pcr approach with degenerate primers. The nearest sine element was located 5.5 kbp upstream at the 5’of the ecerv-beta1. Pan-pol pcr was also used to find novel ervs based on 640 bp long region of pol gene which is the most conserved region of ervs. 27 complete and novel ervs that are 13 beta, 13 gamma, 1 spuma and 249 candidate endogenous retroviruses have been revealed using ltr_struc tool and double checked by retrotector online tool and ncbi-blast tool. It was proven that ecerv-beta1, which has 2 ltrs with 1% divergence between ltrs has a polymorphism among 13 different breeds.</p> Batmagnai E, Erik Bongcam-Rudloff, Matthew Peter Kent, Göran Andersson ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:14 +0000 Characterization of camel (camelus bactrianus) echinococcosis from Southern Mongolia <p>A total 22 (30.5%) camels were infected with 34 echinococcal cysts out of 72 slaughtered camels in Khurmen soum of Southgobi province. The prevalence of infection in camels between 5-7 years (14/22) was 18.2-22.7% and 8 years camels (6/22) were 27.3%. The fertile cyst rate was 40.9% and sterile cyst rate was 22.7%. Camel cystic echinococcosis cyst status was fertile, sterile, abscessed and calcified. Most of the cysts were located in the lungs 54.5%, liver 27.3% and lung-liver 18.2% and were spherical in shape, unilocular and 1-3 cysts located in lung and liver of one camel, cyst diameter was 2-10 cm and with cyst fluid ranging from 1 to 200 ml. Camel echinococcal cysts status and appearance were revealed as age dependent, as older camels echinococcal cysts were revealed as calcified statistically significant (p=0.0458). Histologically, leucocyte infiltration and mild hepatocellular degeneration and infiltration in the liver were noticed. In lungs, there was proliferation of fibrous connective tissue and infiltration of mononuclear cells.</p> Chinchuluun B, Lkhagvatseren S, Nominchuluun Ch, Munkhjargal Ts, Altanchimeg A, Nyamdolgor U, Temuulen D, T Yanagida, A Ito, Batsukh Z ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:22 +0000 Varietal identification study of six wheat varieties using ISSR markers <p>The identification of cereal and horticultural varieties are important for registration and agricultural systems. The traditional way to variety identification is the recording of morphological characters using descriptors. But molecular markers may serve as a modern and suitable approach to variety identification such as ISSR. The objective of the study was to identify the 17 ISSR primers, 801~849, for varietal identification of six wheat varieties, Darkhan-34, Darkhan-166 (Arvin), Darkhan-131, Darkhan-144, Khalkhgol-1 and Tsogt. As a result of ISSR marker observation on varieties, Arvin can be identified with 817, Khalkhgol-1 with 817 and 827, Tsogt with 822, Darkhan-34 with 830, Darkhan-131 with 830 and 848 and Darkhan-144 with 827, 830 and 848 primers. Among the surveyed ISSR primers, five can be used as variety-specific primers, 817, 827, 822, 830 and 848.</p> Tungalag M, Ariungerel M, Otgonbayar B, Myagmarsuren Ya ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:31 +0000 Biomass accounting simulation for bioenergy product from forest resources <p>This study examines the potential to tree component biomass, biomass for bioenergy product and sequester carbon of forest area. <em>In order to know about these value</em>, <em>we used</em> CO2FIX program. Thining harvesting scenario were analyzed, involving the establishment of short rotation harvesting (each 10 years) and long rotation plantations (200 year).  Research results showed an overall tree <em>biomass</em> (stem, foliage, branch and root) were accounted 2.49 ton/ha±0.67, 0.14 ton/ha±0.03, 0.35 ton/ha±0.09 and 0.65 ton/ha±0.18. The potential of biomass for bioenergy product and sequester carbon was increase until the end of project simulation. The increase average biomass of bioenergy was 25.96 Mg/ha±13.46 and the average of net sequestered carbon increase about 16.6±35.9 MgCO<sub>2</sub>equiv/ha. Our  analysis on this study for all research variables is  highest  at each 40  year periods  because  at  this  age,  the  rate  of  increment  in  the biomass of the tree is maximized.</p> Aah Ahmad Almulqu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:36 +0000 The herbicide effect for controlling the weeds in wheat field <p>Of all reported distributions of weeds of 19 species belonging to 15 genera of 10 families in the wheat planted fields Tsagaannuur soum of Selenge aimag, annuals account for 57.9%, biennials for 10.5% and perennials for 31.5%. The use of herbicide Trimexa, Cliomex 300, Cliodmex plus and Trimexa + Cliodimex plus express for controlling both grassy and dicotyledonous weeds has <em>Agropyron repens </em>L,<em> Panicium miliaceum </em>L,<strong><em> </em></strong><em>Eragrostis minor </em>Host,<em> Amaranthus retroflexus </em>L,<em> Artemisia sieversiana </em>Willd,<em> </em><em>Cannabis ruderalis </em>Janisch,<em> Chenopodium album </em>L,<em> Chenopodium aristatum </em>L<em>,</em><em> </em><em>Chenopodium</em><em> acuminatum </em>Willd,<em> </em><em>Convolvulus arvensis</em><em> </em>L,<em> </em><em>Convolvulus gortschakovii </em>Schrenk,<em> Erodium stephanianum </em>Willd,<em> Polygonum  convolvulus </em>L,<em> </em><em>Geranium  siviricum </em>L,<em> Salsola collina </em>(Pall),<em> Salsola australis </em>R.Br,<em> Noneo pulla </em>L,<em> Malva mohileviensis </em>Downer, <em>Vicia cracca </em>L. 84.4-90.9% technical effectiveness.</p> Azzaya T, Otgonsuren M ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:41 +0000 The daily value of micronutrients in newly produced beef and horse concentrated bone broths <p>Beef and horse marrow bones were used to produce the concentrated bone broth and the possibility to make a bone broth only with salt was assessed. Protein and mineral contents in horse broth were higher (p<0.02; 1.92 and 2.3%, respectively) than in beef broth. Concentrions of calcium, magnesium and iron in beef bone broth (85.3, 46.7 and 23.3 mg/100g) were higher (p&lt;0.05) than in horse broth (66.6, 10.0, and 12.3 respectively). Beef bone broth had more (p≤0.05) essential amino acids than in horse broth. The daily value of total essential amino acids of 100g concentrated beef and horse bone broths were 38 and 27.4% respectively. While daily value of calcium 6.7-8.5%, magnesium 4.5-21.2% and iron was 6.8-12.9% respectively. Results showed that bone broth possess many health beneficial properties, such as being a good source of minerals and essential amino acids.<strong></strong></p> Chimegee N, Dashmaa D ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:47 +0000 Feasibility study for the implementation of community-based breeding program for cashmere goats in Erdeneburen Sum (Village), Khovd Province, Western Mongolia <p>Aim of this survey was to reveal the feasibility to develop the Community (Village level) based breeding program in Khovd province. Erdeneburen sum was selected due to the most affected area with the degradation of pasture in this province (Report of Green Gold Project, 2015), where 34 goat herders were interviewed from 4 bags. According to the educational level of herders, the larger proportion of the respondents had lower secondary (56%) and higher level. The remaining 11.7% of them were finished the primary school. This result revealed that the herders were very knowledgeable, so that potential opportunity seen for the recording of goats by them. Total of 150; 50 bucks, 3 castrated males and 97 female goats were used for the baseline survey of quantitative and qualitative traits. In the studied flocks, the large proportions of goats were red (59%) and black (67%) , but white , grey and combination with other colours were few or 4, 4.7, 7.3% respectively, all observed goats had short coarse hairs and with short spiry horns. Sex and age strongly influenced (P&lt;0.001) body weight, other linear body measurements and cashmere fineness. Chest girth has high correlation to cashmere yield and cashmere fineness. There was a strict seasonal mating with control and avoidance of inbreeding by keeping bucks in the same flock for 2 years and practiced the buying bucks from east and north regions. Therefore, the genetic structure of goats should be clarified at first, then appropriate breeding program need to be designed in this sum.</p> Sergelen B, Narantuya B, Suvd G, Bayarjargal M, Gerelmaa S, Badam B, Batgerel D, Myagmarsuren P ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:48:52 +0000 Issues of developing land right registration in Mongolia <p>Land right registration and cadastre have been limited to develop cadastral registration systems in Mongolia. It is related to a lack of cooperation among state organizations that are five major organization conducting in land and property registration, and non-unified system of data exchange, capturing, control and monitoring in the land registration system in Mongolia. The five state organizations have different land right registration and the cadastral database to record land right and property using the distinct software. But also essential information to register land right is insufficient the database of land right, and have not recorded the database. The results indicated that the parcel number and numbering system is four different types in one organization for the land right registration system.</p> Shinebayar T, Khulan B ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:49:01 +0000 The horse in the life and culture of northern nomads The Sakha people (Yakuts) made an invaluable contribution to the world civilization, not only preserving the heritage of steppe culture in the North and the Arctic, but also developing new strategies of Northern horse breeding, adapted to extreme natural and climatic conditions. With the development of the vast Northern expanses of the Yakuts the Arctic space have become an oasis of horse breeding herd, breeding place Yakut horse breed, and it is this "horse" world today gives Yakutia its uniqueness. As noted by the participants of the First International Congress (September 4-7, 2006, Yakutsk) "Sustainable development of head horse breeding" from Japan, France, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Russia, the horse has played a major role in the development of human civilization. The experience and knowledge gained over many centuries by the peoples engaged in horse breeding are the national heritage of the peoples, the priceless wealth of the modern world. It’s the great importance in the development of culture and art, the migration of nomads in search for new lands and the birth of new ethnic groups. Many traditions, customs and rites, associated with special reverence for the horse, have formed a kind of religious ideology, which is still active today. Stepanov Aiaal Ivanovich, Popova Natalia Innokentevna, Romanova Ekaterina Nazarovna, Ivanov Revorii Vasilevich, Boyakova Sardana Ilinichna, Khompodoeva Uigulana Viktorovna ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 11 Oct 2018 01:49:05 +0000