Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences <p>Published by the <a title="MULS" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Mongolian University of Life Sciences (MULS)</a> and <a href="">Mongolian Academy of Agricultural Sciences</a> (MAAS)<strong>.</strong></p> <p><strong>MJAS is included on <a title="Google Scholar" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Google Scholar</a>, <a title="Dimensions" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Dimensions</a>&nbsp;and <a title="CNKI" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CNKI</a></strong></p> en-US <p>Copyright on any research article in the <strong>Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences</strong> is retained by the author(s).</p> <p>The authors grant the <strong>Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences</strong> a license to publish the article and identify itself as the original publisher.</p> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img src="" alt="Creative Commons Licence"></a><br>Articles in the <strong>Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences</strong> are Open Access articles published&nbsp;under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a> CC BY.</p> <p>This license permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> (Dr. Bayarmaa Bold) (Gantulga Lkhagva) Mon, 02 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 The detection of antibody to Bacillus anthracis recombinant PA in vaccinated animal serum <p>Anthrax is a worldwide zoonosis in animals and human. In Mongolia, the confirmed case of anthrax outbreak is reported every year over the past&nbsp; decade. The prevention and control measure of animal anthrax is vaccination using spore of attenuated Sterne strain, but horse does not get vaccinated in Mongolia. In this study, we constructed the recombinant plasmid for over expression of anthrax protective antigen (PA)/GST fusion protein in pGEX-6P-1 vector and purified the recombinant PA (r-PA) using glutathione Sepharose column under native and denaturing conditions. Since both forms of r-PA were recognized by specific antibody against PA, ELISA system to detect antibody titer in vaccinated bovine serum was constructed. Total of 890 vaccinated cattle serum were collected from 178 cattle at 0, 3, 5, 8 and 12 months’ post vaccination. As negative control, 200 cattle serum from Umnugovi aimag were selected which does not have anthrax foci. All serum was tested by rPA indirect ELISA and, antibody to PA were detected in vaccinated cattle serum but were not detected in negative serum. Therefore, rPA should be used in as monitoring of the anthrax vaccination.</p> Javkhlan Navaan, Tuvshinzaya Zorigt, Lkham Baasansuren, Narantuya Ayushjav, Enkhtuya Jargalsaikhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Phylogenetic analysis of Mongolian sheeppox and goatpox viruses <p>Sheeppox and goatpox are caused by sheep pox virus (SPPV) and goat pox virus (GTPV), members of <em>Capripoxvirus</em> genus, <em>Poxviridae</em> family. SPPV and GTPV damage host animal’s wool and skin and reduce production of mutton and milk. Because of morbidity and mortality of the diseases, they bring huge economic burden to the country. Main goal was to compare Mongolian sheep pox, goat pox sequences with other strains that were registered in Genebank.</p> <p>In this study, two SPPV and two GTPV field strains from Mongolia and Perego M strain (Biocombinat SOI, Mongolia), Russian and Chinese alive vaccine strains were used. The common DNA extraction method was used and samples were amplified on a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR) which amplify the full p32 gene of Capripoxvirus. The primers were designed based on the conserved sequences just outside of the p32 gene of SPPV or GTPV. By applying this method to the sheep and goat samples, suspected with SPPV and GTPV infection in Mongolia, the nested-PCR products were obtained from all samples on the predicted size, and the presence of SPPV and GTPV were confirmed via full length sequence analysis of P32 gene. Sequence comparison was performed using the online BLAST program. Sequence identities of nucleotides were analyzed using MUSCLE algorithm. A phylogenetic tree derived from nucleotide sequences was constructed for the <em>Capripoxvirus </em>using the neighbor joining method of MEGA (version X) software. Based on the phylogenetic tree, the Mongolian sheep pox virus, 2017 clustered together with Zabaikalsk strain and Perego strain (Biocombinat SOI, Mongolia). The Mongolian sheep pox virus, 2015 was closer to Tunisian and Chinese Gansu, Shanxi province strains. Chinese vaccine strain AV41, sequenced in this study was clustered with EF522181.1 Chinese Goat pox vaccine strain but Russian sheep pox vaccine strain, sequenced in this study was close to Mongolian goat pox viruses, 2009. The present data provides theoretical references to improve the preventive and control strategy. Based on the phylogenetic tree that we made, we conclude that SPPV and GTPV sequences in Mongolia were closer to Chinese SPPV, GTPV sequences therefore they were most likely imported from China.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Batmagnai Enkhbaatar, Oguma Keisuke, Sentsui Hiroshi, Erdenechimeg Dashzevge, Enkhmandakh Yondonjamts, Ariunbold Gantulga, Odonchimeg Myagmarsuren, Boldbaatar Bazartseren ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Stability of anthocyanin extracts from tall currant (Ribes altissimum) fruits <p>Plant anthocyanins are colored pigments that are traditionally used as dye and food colorant. Moreover, anthocyanins have been widely studied for its medicinal values and could be potential pharmaceutical ingredients. This study investigated the anthocyanins stability and extraction rate from tall currant extracts. The results showed that tall currant fruits are rich in anthocyanin content, providing 1.93%–2.70% anthocyanin in different extraction solvents. The stability of anthocyanin extracts was significantly affected by light exposure as indicated by 34.96%–56.64% degradation. The optimal condition for anthocyanin extraction from tall currant fruits was achieved with 70% ethanol/citric acid solution (pH = 2.50, and solid/liquid ratio of 1:20) when the extraction was carried out at 70°C for 90 minutes. This condition corresponded to anthocyanin content of 2.39% or 2390 mg anthocyanin in 100 g of dry plant materials. The findings of this study will be useful to predict the quality changes that might occur in preparing food colorants from tall currant (<em>Ribes altissimum</em>) in terms of thermal processing and prevent the degradation of the anthocyanins for the beverage and food industry in Mongolia.</p> Mungunnaran Damdindorj, Munkhtsetseg Byambaa, Odonchimeg Munkhjargal, Bayarmaa Barkhuu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Wheat varietal identification study using common quality and disease PCR markers <p>The main vital cereal crop in Mongolia is wheat (<em>Triticum spp</em> .). There are more than 10000 wheat varieties are released and registered in the world wheat atlas up to the date. Internationally, wheat varieties are identified by their genotypes. However, local wheat varieties are being identified only by its phenotypic traits in Mongolia. Not significant study was carried out on wheat varietal identification. In this study, we aim to differentiate widely planting 6 local wheat varieties Darkhan-34, Darkhan-131, Darkhan-144, Darkhan-166, Tsogt and Khalkh-gol-1 using PCR based common quality and disease 22 markers. As a result, 10 out of 22 markers were detected in all wheat varieties in distinct sizes, 8 markers detected otherwise and 4 markers was not detected at all. Thus, the ZSBy9 marker which is specific marker to distinguish Darkhan-144, ZSBy8 primer which is specific marker to distinguish Khalkh gol-1, GluA1c and GluB1 Bx642 markers those are specific markers to distinguish Tsogt variety from other studied varieties respectively.</p> Ariungerel Mandakh, Otgonbayar Baasansuren, Tungalag Munkhbat, Myagmarsuren Yadamsuren ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Results of a study comparing planting time and biomass yield of green manure crops in the steppe zone of Mongolia <p>Due to the crop monoculture system which has been 60 years continuously played in a key role in the crop sector Mongolia, soil erosion and its fertility decline have been becoming one of the main pressing issues in all crop zones. The main solution of restoration of soil fertility in the steppe zone of Mongolia is not only to reduce bare fallow but also urgently need to apply green manure in all regions.&nbsp;Our study has focused on identifying the appropriate timing to cultivate green manure crops in the Eastern steppe region of Mongolia and to determine the convenient alternatives of crops with a high yield of biomass to use for green manure.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>We determined the most convenient time to use crop biomass for green manure is between 22-27th.July for the green manure crops cultivated on the 20th of May.</p> <p>For the crops cultivated on the 30th of May green manure time can be determined between 2-6th. August and for the crops cultivated on the 10th of June the convenient time would be between 10-13th.August.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>We prioritized the best option of the crop alternatives based on the 3 years average yield of green mass and concluded that field pea and oat mixture, Sudan grass, and fodder pea mixture can be one of the convenient options for green manure in the steppe zone of Mongolia. According to our study results, convenient alternatives with the highest root mass were yellow clover (27.5-60.5c/ha) and white lupine (27.5-61.4c/ha).&nbsp;</p> <p>In terms of biomass, the convenient alternatives with the highest biomass were the following crops planted on the 20th of May such as mixture of field pea and oat (82.5-112.2c/ha), fodder pea and Sudan grass (67.4-97.0c/ha), as well as Sudan grass (57.1-110.0c/ha.&nbsp;It is considered that in the steppe zone green manure crops can be used for green manure if the biomass of the crops can exceed 40c/ha. [1] The appropriate timing of the planting period should not be later than the 30th of May.</p> Onon Deriilaamyatav, Amarsanaa Bayar ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and biomass of siberian elm seedlings (Ulmus pumila L.) grown in tree nursery <p>In this paper, we studied growth and biomass of 1-2 years old Siberian elm seedlings grown in the tree nursery, near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. <em>Ulmus pumila</em> L. has a wide natural distribution throughout the country. Due to climate change and other factors, environmental degradation has become inevitable in the country and efforts to restore degraded land are made in different regions. Due to its drought and cold resistance, Siberian elm is considered to be one of the most suitable species of tree to be used for restoration and windbreaks. We measured height, diameter and biomass of 1-2 year old seedlings, and composed allometric equation to estimate aboveground and belowground biomass. Equations have high prediction power (R<sup>2</sup>=0.80-0.96), however, they are more suitable to seedlings and saplings due to difference in the allometric relationship of trees at different ages. We also explored relationship between diameter (at root collar) and height, which was fairly good (R<sup>2</sup>=0.73).</p> <p>In order to be able to use the equation to indirectly estimate belowground biomass of seedlings, we estimated Root/shoot ratio of seedlings. Root/shoot ratio was 0.85 for 1-2-year-old seedlings. Belowground biomass estimation can be useful in determining how well the tree can fix soil around it, and draw water and nutrients from the soil. The result of the study can be used for further work concerning the viability of Siberian elm for restoration and windbreaks.</p> Gan-Erdene Batsaikhan, Myadagmaa Suren, Batdorj Enkhbayar, Delgerjargal Dugarjav ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Options for Increasing Mongolia’s Livestock Sector Exports - A Revealed Comparative Advantage Analysis <p>Mongolia is a country with rich natural resources, including more than 70 million domesticated animals. The livestock sector is the traditional economic sector of Mongolia, and it is a major food source of the nation. Currently, the country faces an overgrazing problem caused by an increase in the number of animals whereas rangeland carrying capacity is limited. Exporting more meat and other products of animal origin has the potential to reduce the livestock population to sustainable levels, reduce overgrazing pressure, and increase the country’s export income. Policies aimed at promoting animal product exports should take the comparative advantages of different types of products of animal origin into account in order to maximize their impact. This paper aims to provide science-based evidence to support such policies by investigating the comparative advantage of meat and other selected products of animal-origin using the revealed comparative advantage index. Official statistics for 81 products over nine years were used for the data analysis. The results suggest that Mongolia’s meat export policy should focus on large volumes and relatively lower processing level products in the short run and should shift to differentiated value-added products in the long run. We recommend that the Government of Mongolia improves its meat sector’s regulation and develops formal supply chains in order to effectively monitor food safety and create high-quality Mongolian brand products of animal origin.</p> Erdenechuluun Tumur, Wim Heijman, Enkh-Amgalan Gurjav, Bakey Agipar, Nico Heerink ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 31 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0000